PDF/EPUB On The Natural Faculties

On The Natural Faculties

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The fact is that those who are enslaved to their sects are not merely devoid of all sound knowledge but they will not even stop to learn This little book was appended to my Great Books of the Western World copy of the Hippocratic writings so I decided to go ahead and Big Bad Detective Agency read it I m not sure I m happy with that decision Having by nowead my fair share of ancient science I must confess that the experience is often stultifyingly dull and this little treatise was one of the worst I ve so far The Placer read Well who was Galen It s a name we don t often hear nowadays but Galen s influence was according to everything I ve heard enormous From his death to the Renaissance Galen was the major authority in medicine To me this is both depressing and terrifying because Galen does not make a good impression in this treatise In truth he often comes across as an oaf Galen begins with the Aristotelian premise that nature does nothing in vain and from there attempts to prove that the internal organs function because they have certain faculties He is defending the doctrine of the four humors which is found in both Aristotle and Hippocrates against his main nemesis Erasistratus who subscribes to the atomic theory of matter The treatise then alternates between fallaciouseasoning mind numbing and inaccurate descriptions of the workings of internal organs and vituperation of all who disagree with him whom Galen dismisses as mindless sectarians simpletons or as lacking sufficient Otto Freundlich: Cosmic Communism reverence for the wise ancients Meanwhile Galen secriminations are hypocritical in the extreme For one he is himself a sectarian digging in his heels to defend the Hippocratic school What s his The Tattooist of Auschwitz (The Tattooist of Auschwitz, reasoning is often euivalent to that parodied by Molie who has a uack explain how opium puts people to sleep by citing opium s soporific power Consider. The text used is a few unimportant modifications that of Kühn Vol II as edited by Georg Teubner Leipzig 1893 The numbers the pages of edition are printed at the side of the Greek text a parallel mark || in the line indicating the exact point of division between Kühn’s pages Words in the English text which are enclosed in suare brackets are supplementary or explanatory; practically all explanations however are elegated to the footnotes or introduction In the footnotes also attention is drawn to words which are of particular philological interest from the point of view of modern medicine I have made the translation directly from the Greek; where passages of special difficulty occurred I have been able to com. The followingIt has been made clear in the preceding discussion that nutrition occurs by an alteration or assimilation of that which nourishes to that which eceives nourishment and that there exists in every part of the animal a faculty which in view of *Its Activity We Call In General Terms *activity we call in general terms or specifically assimilative and nutritiveIn other words nutrition occurs because of the nutritive faculty In fact the contents of This Book Can Be Summarized Like So Bodily Organs Attract book can be summarized like so Bodily organs attract etain what is of their nature and expel what is foreign by means of their faculties There is a common stereotype about Roman culture which I hesitate to believe because it is a stereotype that the Romans were unoriginal and cultural parasites of the Greeks Surely that seems simplistic But it s hard to shake off as entirely false The Roman national epic the Aeneid was a self conscious attempt to emulate Homer Roman arts and architecture were manifestly influenced by the Greeks and the major Roman philosophical efforts were ecapitulations of Greek thinkers Plotinus the Neo Platonist Lucretius the Epicurean Marcus Aurelius the Stoic Now we have Galen to add to the mix the dogmatic adherent of Hippocrates Well I don t want to push that too far because surely it is simplistic But one thing that I am absolutely certain of is that I wouldn t want Galen as my physician Galen s 200 AD view of medicine was based on
that of his 
of his Hippocrates and was the standard view of medicine until the 1530s when Vesalius conducted his Other People's Property: A Shadow History of Hip-Hop in White America researches Galen s emphasis on the importance of blood letting in certain circumstances influenced medicine as late as the 1800sMuch of this book is an animated and by today s standards fairly vicious attack on the alleged idiocy of those who held views different from his own its value lie. Pare my own version with Linacre’s Latin translation 1523 and the Frenchendering of Charles Daremberg 1854 56; in this The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington (Phoenix Book) respect I am also peculiarly fortunate in having had the help of Mr A W Pickard Cambridge of Balliol College Oxford who most kindly went through the Pg vi proofs and made many valuable suggestions from the point of view of exact scholarship My best thanks are due to the Editors for their courtesy and for the kindly interest they have taken in the work I have also gratefully to acknowledge theeceipt of much assistance and encouragement from Sir William Osler Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford and from Dr J D Comrie first lecturer on the History of Medicine at Edinburgh University Professor D’Arcy W Thompson of ,
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S in the arguments Galen Puts Forward To Combat Those forward to combat those since these arguments explain his own theories and even give some of the easons for t Light but not entertaining eading and hard to see how it would be practically useful Galen presents his view of what the organs do sometimes he is ight sometimes he is wrong The ideas in this book seem useless to an ancient doctor It does not contain empirical observations like beans make you fat or fish gives a long life instead it discusses ideas like that urine comes from the urinary bladder points out that the gall blader is very different from the urinary bladder Notes That It Is Weird that it is weird the body can transform bread to blood This book feels like ancient infotainment Bread to blood seems to have been a standard idiom from its freuent use in this blood Connection to this bread is my flesh this wine is my blood of Christianity The phrase Need for studying the works of the Ancients carefully in order to each a proper understanding of this subject Seems like the Schätze Aus Dem Musée Picasso, Paris real authorities on useless anatomy died centuries before Galen s time Good luck performing surgery based on Help me out MDs Am Iight in seeing Galen as a progression and perhaps even a corrective to Hippocrates Eristitatus and others Since my background in life science is very limited I hesitate to be either critical or precise I know about physiology now than before I Letters to Rollins read this so you can teally lose by Britain, Europe And The Third World reading this can you I might suggesteading a little Hippocrates first as I did to provide a little context It s a most systematic and authoritative argument for his own take on scientific medicine in his day and make no wonder Marcus Aurelius wanted him as his personal doctor when off to fight the Germans and not much at Galen s stubbornly staying to fight the Germans and not much at Galen s stubbornly staying Pergamum in preference. Niversity College Dundee and Sir W T Thiselton Dyer late director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew have very kindly helped me to identify several animals and plants mentioned by Galen I cannot conclude without expressing a word of gratitude to my former biological teachers Professors Patrick Geddes and J Arthur Thomson The experience Scotland Yard reared on the foundation of their teaching has gone far to help me in interpreting the great medical biologist of Greece I should be glad to think that the present work might help however little to hasten the comingeunion between the “humanities” and modern biological science; their present separation I believe to be against the best interest of both A J B 22nd Stationary Hospital Aldershot March 1916.